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CHARLES BUTLER: (1560–1647), sometimes called the Father of English Beekeeping, was a logician, grammarist, author, minister (Vicar of Wootton St Lawrence, near Basingstoke, England), and an influential beekeeper. [via wikipedia]
 

“It wasn’t until 1586 that it was recognized that the head of the honey bee colony is a female queen. This news was popularized by Charles Butler… prior to that, it was assumed the head of the colony must be a male – a ‘king’. Even William Shakespeare, in Henry V, refers to honey bees living in a kingdom, with a king as ruler.” [via buzzaboutbees.net]
 

“Soon after Queen Elizabeth I died, her beekeeper, Charles Butler, published The Feminine Monarchie (1609).  On the surface, the book reflected a dominant philosophy of seventeenth-century England- that is, nature was a model for human virtue.  Butler wrote of the bees: ‘In their labour and order at home and abroad they are so admirable that they may be a pattern unto men both of one and of the other’ The bees were loyal to the queen, refusing any type of anarchy or oligarchy.  They labored incessantly for the good of the commonwealth.  Therefore, according to historian Kevin Sharpe, ‘The keeping of bees was a pastime that was a lesson in statecraft and also one in personal conduct.’

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Greek cities often used animals as identifying symbols on their coins…

The bee was associated with Ephesus for many reasons. According to the writer Philostratos, Imagines 2.8, the Athenians who came to colonize Ionia, where Ephesus is located, were led by the Muses, who took the shape of bees. Artemis’ priestesses were called melissai or “bees” of the goddess (Inschriften von Ephesus 2109), and were directed by “king bees” (essenes), priests who served a year-long term under strict rules of purity (Pausanias 8.13.1); the ancient Greeks and Romans didn’t realize that the leader of a beehive is a queen, not a king.

When the Ephesian Artemis appears in her stiff Anatolian format, bees are often shown on her belt or tight skirt. Indeed, D.G. Hogarth, who excavated the earliest levels of the sanctuary found gold ornaments, some in the shape of bees, that could have been attached to an image’s garments. Some scholars trace the Ephesian Artemis back to an earlier Anatolian goddess whom the Hittites called Hannahanna, who sent a bee to wake up the god Telepinu from sleep/death. On Ephesus’ early silver coins, the bee appears alone on the obverse, with only an incuse stamp on the reverse. 

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